Ahmad Shah Abdali was the 1st Emperor of the Durrani Empire. He was considered the founder of the modern state of Afghanistan. His title was Padishah-i-Ghazi (victorious emperor) and Durr-i-Durrani (pearl pearl or pearl of age).
Wiki / Biography
Ahmad Shah Abdali was also known as Ahmed Shah Durrani or Ahmad Shah Abdali Durr-i-Durrani. He was born in the year 1722 (age 50-51 at the time of death) to Herat (then Hotak Empire, present-day Afghanistan) or Multan (then Mughal Empire, present-day Pakistan).
Family, caste and wife
Ahmad Shah was born in a Sardozei Clan Abdali tribes of the Afghans. His father named Muhammad Zaman Khan Abdali, from the Sardozei tribe. His mother was Zarghuna Begum from the Alakozai tribe. He had a brother, Zulfiqar, who became governor of Mazandaran, Iran. Abdali is married three times. His first wife was Mimtta, the second wife was Iffat-a-Nissa Begum and his third wife Hazrat Begum, with whom he had married in 1757. One of his children was Timur Shah Durrani, born in 1748. He was the second child and the eldest son of Ahmad and his first wife Mimtta.
First years of Ahmad Shah Abdali
Ahmad Shah Abdali's father, Mohammad Zaman Khan, was imprisoned by the Persian army and released in 1715. After his release, Zaman went to Multan to meet his relatives. According to some sources, Abdali was born in Multan (today a city in Pakistan). ). In 1738, Ahmad and his brother, Zulfiqar, were released from the imprisonment of Hussain Hotak, leader of the Ghilji in the Kandahar region, and joined the army of Nadar Shah (leader of the Afsharid dynasty, in Iran).
Zulfiqar was appointed governor of Mazandaran while Ahmad Shah was working as a personal assistant to Nadar. Later, Ahmed was promoted commander of the Abdali Cavalry of 4,000 soldiers, who then attended the army of Nader Shah during the invasion of the Mughal Empire in 1738. According to a Pashtun legend , Nader Shah would be in Delhi
Advance Ahmad Abdali. Do not forget Ahmad Khan Abdali, that after me the kingship will be passed on to you. "
Rise to power
In 1747, Nader Shah was assassinated by his own guards. The guards had planned this so secretly that Abdali's regiment could not come to rescue him. One of Ahmad Shah's wives told him that Nader had been killed. Ahmad and his army rushed to save him, but when they arrived, their leader, Nader, was already dead. Abdali's loyal regiment cried over the death of its leader and they returned to Kandahar. Before leaving, Ahmad removed the royal seal from Nader Shah's finger and the Koh-i-Noor diamond tied around the arm of his deceased master. The Durrani unanimously accepted Ahmad as their new leader and became the sovereign ruler of Afghanistan.
Invasions from India
After the death of Nader Shah, Abdali married his widow, Iffat-a-Nissa Begum. He formed his trusted army of compatriots Durranis and other Pashtuns, Tajiks, Qizilbash and other Muslims.
He began his military conquest by capturing Ghazni of Ghiljis, then Kabul of the local ruler. He invaded the region of Punjab three times from 1747 to 1753. In 1750, he managed to seize Herat (today a city in Afghanistan).
Ahmad Shah invaded India eight times from 1748 to 1767. The main purpose of these invasions was to plunder the riches of India; as India was very rich at that time. In 1748 he invaded India for the first time and was defeated at the Battle of Manupur. The second invasion took place in 1749, during which they managed to gain control of the territory located to the west of the Indus. The third invasion is the Battle of Lahore (1752), in which Ahmad Shah prevails over Mir Mannu (Mogul governor of Punjab). During the fourth invasion, his army managed to loot the cities of Lahore, Sirhind, Delhi, Mathura and Vrindavan.
The fifth invasion was one of the most important in history; It included many battles, including the Battle of Lahore (1759), the Second Battle of Sikandarabad (1760), the Siege of Kunjpura (1760), the Third Battle of Panipat (1761) and the Battle of Sialkot (1761). The last three invasions date from 1762 to 1767.
The third battle of Panipat (1761)
The third battle of Panipat took place on January 14, 1761 in Panipat (today Haryana), between the Maratha Empire, led by Sadashivrao Bhau, and the Afghan army, led by Ahmad Shah Abdali. It is considered one of the most important battles of the 18th century in India. Abdali's army was supported by three Indian allies: the Rohillas Najib-ud-daulah, Afghans from the Doab region and Shuja-ud-Daula, the Awadh Nawab.
Maratha's main army was stationed at Deccan with the Peshwa. In 1758, the Marathas pushed Timur Shah Durrani, the son of Abdali, out of Punjab and Kashmir. Abdali took revenge by striking with his army in 1759 and reached Lahore and Delhi. Maratha leader Sadashivrao Bhau headed north with an army of 100,000 men. During one of the first battles, the Abdali forces killed the warrior Maratha, Dattaji Shinde or Dattaji Rao Scindia. This battle was followed by a few other battles that continued for several days.
The Marathas repulsed the Rohilla, who supported the Afghans, but soon they found themselves in a weaker position. The Afghan forces were much more numerous than Marathas and their allies were more powerful than those of Marathas. According to the Diwan Kashi Raj bakhar of Shuja-ud-Daula, about 40,000 Maratha prisoners were slaughtered the day after the Afghans and the children and women imprisoned by the Afghans had won the battle.
The day after the battle
After the battle, Abdali sent a letter to Peshwa Balaji Baji Rao on February 10, 1761, appealing the following:
There is no reason to have animosity among us. Your son Vishwasrao and your brother Sadashivrao died in battle, was unhappy. Bhau started the battle, so I had to fight reluctantly. Still, I'm sorry for his death. Please continue your tutelage of Delhi as before, to that I have no opposition. Leave only the Punjab until Sutlaj stays with us. Restoring Shah Alam to the throne of Delhi as you have done before and letting peace and friendship grow between us is my ardent desire. Give me that desire. "
Ahmad Shah Abdali was suffering from cancer in his nose and was leading his domestic and foreign affairs in Kabul in his later years. In June 1773 he died of cancer in Murghah, in the province of Herat.
Facts / Trivia
- He was buried in Kandahar, Afghanistan (known as the tomb of Ahmad Shah Durrani). There is a sacred mantle in the tomb that is worn by the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
- After his death, his son, Timur Shah Durrani, succeeded him.
- In his tomb, his epitaph is written:
The high-ranking king, Ahmad Shah Durrani,
Was equal to Kisra in the management of his government's affairs.
In his time, fear of his glory and greatness,
The lioness fed the deer with her milk.
From all sides in the ears of his enemies, arrived
A thousand reprimands of the language of his dagger.
The date of his departure for the house of mortality
It was the year of the Hegira 1186 (1772 AD) "
- A great poet, he wrote many poems in his mother tongue "Pashto". His famous poem was "The love of a nation":
By the blood, we are immersed in the love of you.
Young people lose their heads because of you.
I come to you and my heart finds rest.
Far from you, sorrow sticks to my heart like a snake.
I forget the throne of Delhi
when I remember the peaks of my beautiful Pakhtunkhwa.
If I have to choose between the world and you,
I will not hesitate to claim your barren deserts like mine "
- A park is created in Kala Amb, Panipat and Haryana to commemorate the "Third Battle of Panipat".
- In 2019, a Hindi film about the "Third Battle of Panipat" was published with the name "Panipat – The Great Betrayal", in which Sanjay Dutt played the role of "Ahmad Shah Abdali".
(embed) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zpXnmy-6w1g (/ embed)